CCIE SP — IPV6 IPV6的简述

IPV6简述:

全球Ipv4地址数量越来越少,虽然有众多技术在延长Ipv4的寿命(NAT、CIDR等),但Ipv4总会有用完的一天,Ipv6就必然取代Ipv4。如果感兴趣的朋友,可以登陆AT&T的全局路由器,观察全球全局路由表的数量:

Adress:route-server.ip.att.net

Password:rviews

CCCCCCC
————– route-server.ip.att.net —————
———  AT&T IP Services Route Monitor  ———–

The information available through route-server.ip.att.net is offered
by AT&T’s Internet engineering organization to the Internet community.
This router has the global routing table view from each of the above
routers, providing a glimpse to the Internet routing table from the
AT&T network’s perspective.

This router maintains eBGP peerings with customer-facing routers
throughout the AT&T IP Services Backbone:

12.123.21.243   Atlanta, GA             12.123.133.124  Austin, TX
12.123.41.250   Cambridge, MA           12.123.5.240    Chicago,IL
12.123.17.244   Dallas, TX              12.123.139.124  Detroit, MI
12.123.37.250   Denver, CO              12.123.134.124  Houston, TX
12.123.29.249   Los Angeles, CA         12.123.1.236    New York, NY
12.123.33.249   Orlando,FL              12.123.137.124  Philadelphia, PA
12.123.142.124  Phoenix, AZ             12.123.145.124  San Diego, CA
12.123.13.241   San Francisco, CA       12.123.25.245   St. Louis, MO
12.123.45.252   Seattle, WA             12.123.9.241    Washington, DC

*** Please Note:

Ping and traceroute delay figures measured with this box are unreliable,
due to the high CPU load this box experiences when complicated “show” commands
are being executed.

For questions about this route-server, send email to: jayb@att.com

*** route-server.ip.att.net now uses AAA for logins.  Login with
username “rviews”.

User Access Verification

Username: rviews
route-server>

2018-7-26 更新:

Ipv6的表达方式:

IPv6地址的基本表达方式是X:X:X:X:X:X:X:X,其中X是1个4位16进制整数( 1个16进制等于4个2进制,所以X为16位)。Ipv6一共8组,每组16位,共计128位( 4×4×8 = 128 )

由于Ipv6是128位,所以记忆比较复杂,所以有几种可以简化的方法,以下列出常用的几种:

例如如下Ipv6的地址:

2031:0000:130F:0000:0000:09C0:876A:130B

1、每组的首位为0时,可以忽略”0″.
2031:0:130F:0:0:9c0:876A:130B

2、连续的组都是0时,可以用”::”来替代,注意,一个ipv6中只能出现一次”::”
2031:0:130F::9C0:876A:130B

FF01:0:0:0:0:0:0:1 —>>> FF01::1
0:0:0:0:0:0:0:1 —>>> ::1

地址分类:

单播:

1、未指定的地址,环回地址和IPV4兼容地址
未指定地址:0:0:0:0:0:0:0:0 —>>> ::
环回地址:   0:0:0:0:0:0:0:1 —>>> ::1 (与127.0.0.1的作用一致)
IPv4兼容地址:ipv6 = 96bits+32bits,例如:


注:好像::192.168.30.1这种表达方式已经不行了,只能把它转换为16进制才行。

2、本地链路地址
前10bits(FE80::/10)是固定前缀,例如:


注:后64bits表示端口ID,相当于ipv4中的主机位,会自动分配。

本地链路地址常以EUI-64的方式表示,EUI-64如图所示:

eui-64

X=1 代表唯一性,独一无二的MAC地址
X=0 代表有重复,交换机中可以找到这样的MAC地址
所以当MAC地址为:ca01.0544.0000
EUI-64地址:FE80::c801:05FF:FE44:0 (此时就表示MAC地址有重复,如果不重复则为FE80::ca01:05FF:FE44:0)

3、本地站点地址
前10bits(FEC0::/10)是固定前缀,在64bits的主机位前又加了16bits的子网id,例如:

4、可聚合全球单播地址
前3bits(2000::/3)是固定前缀,此时Ipv6被层次化了,如下图所示:

可聚合全球单播地址

13bits TLA:  顶级聚合位,由SP申请。
8bits RES:   区域位,如亚太、东南亚等
24bits NLAs:网络层聚合
16bits SLA:   子网位

组播:

前8位全为1(FF)时,就标示ipv6的组播地址,如下图所示:

组播地址

下图标示了常用的组播地址:

组播地址范围

被请求节点(Solicited-Node)的组播地址:FF02::1:FF00:0000,后24bits(单播ipv4的后24bits)是可变的,所以被请求节点的组播地址范围是:FF02::1:FF/104

实例说明:

ipv6 unicast-routing   !—Ipv6进行路由时,必须打上
!
interface FastEthernet0/0
no ip address
duplex full
ipv6 address 2001::1:1/64   !—全球可聚合单播地址
ipv6 enable   !—可以在端口上开启ipv6
no clns route-cache

#sh int f0/0
FastEthernet0/0 is up, line protocol is up
Hardware is DEC21140, address is ca01.0544.0000 (bia ca01.0544.0000)
!—“bia ca01.0544.0000”,bia即“烧录地址”(burned in address),MAC地址即0003.e39b.9220,此处MAC地址可以通过命令改变,不过主要是为了防止MAC攻击,所以意义不大。

#sh ipv6 interface f0/0   !—通过此命令来查看端口下ipv6的参数
FastEthernet0/0 is up, line protocol is up
IPv6 is enabled, link-local address is FE80::C801:5FF:FE44:0   !—本地链路地址,EUI-64标示
Global unicast address(es):
2001::1:1, subnet is 2001::/64   !—全球可聚合单播(可以有多个),2001::/64是子网
Joined group address(es):
FF02::1   !—所有节点
FF02::2   !—所有路由器,当打开ipv6 unicast-routing时,才会加入此组
FF02::1:FF01:1   !—被请求节点的组播地址,相当于ARP的广播地址,对应2001::1:1的后32bit,01:0001
FF02::1:FF44:0   !—被请求节点的组播地址,同理对应FE80::C801:5FF:FE44:0的后32bit,44:0000
MTU is 1500 bytes
ICMP error messages limited to one every 100 milliseconds
ICMP redirects are enabled
ND DAD is enabled, number of DAD attempts: 1
ND reachable time is 30000 milliseconds
ND advertised reachable time is 0 milliseconds
ND advertised retransmit interval is 0 milliseconds
ND router advertisements are sent every 200 seconds
ND router advertisements live for 1800 seconds
Hosts use stateless autoconfig for addresses.

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